In the year 1931 on the 13th of February, New Delhi became the capital city of the country of India under the British Raj. The privilege of being the capital city of India was first endowed on Calcutta (now Calcutta) which served as the prime capital of the country from 1800s until 1911, when it was decided the capital of the country would be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi. The prime reason behind this decision of the British government was the fact that they felt it was much easier to rule the country from the northern region, where New Delhi is located, than ruling it from Calcutta, which is located on the eastern coast of the country. Although Delhi got to enjoy the privilege of being the country’s capital from the 1900s, in the previous centuries too, it had enjoyed the privilege of being the central point for many political empires, including the Delhi Sultanate as well as the Mughal Empire, that reigned between 1649 till 1857.
In the Delhi Durbar of 1911, the foundation stone of New Delhi as the capital city of India was laid by the then emperor of India, King George V. Two prominent British architects of that time named Sir Herbert Baker and Sir Edwin Lutyens took charge of the planning and architecture of the revamping of the city, and the work was finally completed in the year 1931, marking 13th February as the day New Delhi was officially inaugurated as the capital of India. The process took long because the viceroy had rejected many ideas and suggestions for the revamping of the city due to high costs, but ultimately, it was made. The British government fetched in employees from the Madras as well as Calcutta Presidency to Delhi, and a temporary secretariat building was constructed to have all the important employees be assigned there. As on today, that area stands as one of the most posh areas in the city of New Delhi.
Ever since then, all political operations and functions of the country, including the legislative, executive, and judiciary, have been taking place from New Delhi itself.